Liigu sisu juurde

These places formed a part of a Baltic economic zone in the Viking Age Malowist , ; Losinski b, This system is now yours. Archaeological investigation has demonstrated that Kamien Pomorski played an important role mainly in the 12th and 13th centuries.

The existence of earlier places of the same sort, as in Scandinavia e. Lundeborg, Sortemuld or Helgo cannot be excluded, but, apart from single hoards and stray-finds of solidi, there is no proof. At the end of the 8th century, single settlements like Wolin, Bardy or Truso developed in Pomerania. These emporia expanded in the 9th century. At the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th centuries, essential changes took part in the organization of Baltic emporia--they became important places of production.

Wolin gained new fortifications and a new craftsmen's quarter. In the Parseta region, the trade and production activity moved from Bardy to Kolobrzeg-Budzistowo, where a new and much larger settlement got its start.

Aktsiaoptsioonide tehingud vahendavad tasu

The turning point in the history of Pomerania was the end of the 10th century, when Truso disappeared, and new central places in Gdansk and Kamien Pomorski were rising. Places like Szczecin and Kolobrzeg were developing. All the settlements were characterised by urban features like streets, quarters, harbours, markets, public places and, in some of them, churches.

During the 11th and 12th centuries, some of them, like Szczecin, Kamien Pomorski and Gdansk, developed, while others, like Wolin, lost their importance. The next step in the development of Baltic towns was the bestowal of town rights and joining the Hanseatic League in the 13th century Rebkowski The recent study has shed light on two main concepts concerning the genesis of Slavonic emporia.

Both of the theories are defined by the fact that the Slavs appeared on the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea only in the 6th century. During the 7th century, they occupied most of the districts and consolidated as tribes.

In the area of some early medieval centres, traces of former Germanic settlement phase are also known. When the Slavs appeared in the region, the old sea-routes with the Scandinavians were reactivated. By the second half of the 8th century, Slavic tribes had become so well-organized that the Dawn Trading System trade centers appeared.

The emporia gave the Slavs access to import goods Herrmann; Dulinicz Some of the emporia evolved from settlements into early urban centres, but still kept the traditional spatial structures. Favourable factors in their development were well-established tribal power structures and a good economic situation.

The scenario described above was a typical Slavic way for the development of early urban settlements. Other centres emerged as a result of exterior interference, in co-operation with the local political elite.

Primarily, the dominant Scandinavian role can be mentioned in this connection. The centres were founded on the peripheries of local tribal communities. They were built from the beginning as a place for exchange, and their inhabitants lived from the beginning in a developed social structure. The community of these centres consisted mainly of merchants and craftsmen Lonsinski This model was alien to the Slavs.

As examples of centres which were established in this way, the settlement Dawn Trading System in Mecklenburg, Menzlin-Gorke Schoknecht ; Dulinicz, Rostock-Dierkow Herrmann; WarnkeGross Stromkendorf Tummuscheit and Ralswiek Herrmann, as well as Truso in the Slavic-Prussian borderland can be pointed out.

In addition to these two models, there were sites which do not fit into these definitions, and therefore represent a kind of combination of the sites described above.

One site of this type is Wolin, which probably developed from a local fishing settlement into a big town predominantly because of co-operation with a settlement of Scandinavian newcomers in the vicinity Lonsinski Economic factors, primarily the development of long-distance trade in the Baltic zone, can be pointed out as the main reason for the rise of emporia in the region.

The duke's rule and the evolution of different elements of the commodity economy, within the frames of natural primitive economy, as well as wider socioeconomic changes caused by the formation of the feudal system, were the causative factors in both cases.

Kas tõlkida kirjeldus Google'i tõlke abil eesti keelde? The era of New Eden territory division has arrived! The conquest of the stars and beyond officially begins. The new version opens up the territories for Corporations to claim.

The development of crafts and exploitation of natural resources were also essential factors. Special attention should be drawn to a manifold mutual relationship between the Dawn Trading System and political power--as a result of this, trade and craft developed in the main political centres Leciejewicz, References Ambrosiani, B.

Birka and the beginning of the Viking Age. Von der Eisenzeit zum Mittelalter. Festschrift fur Michael Muller-Wille. Neumunster, Blomkvist, N. The concept of the town and the dawn of urban life east and west of the Baltic. On the emergence of centres, turn-over places, towns and cities. Novgorod Style? CCC papers, 5. Riga, Bogucki, M. Dlaczego we wczesnym Sredniowieczu powstawaly skarby zlomu srebrnego? Uwagi na marginesie prac Jacka Kowalewskiego i Przemyslawa Urbanczyka.

In press. Grobina--a sign of the future. Ports of trade in the Balt Lands. Buko, A. Archeologia Polski wczesnoSredniowiecznej. Callmer, J. Lund, Urbanization in Scandinavia and the Baltic Region ca. AD trading places, centers and early urban sites. Birka Studies, 3.

Stockholm, Ciolek, R. Znaleziska solidow na Pomorzu. Clarke, H. Towards a comparative history of urban origin. BAR International Series, i-ii. Oxford, Dalton, G. Comments on ports of trade in early medieval Europe.

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Duczko, W. Viking Rus. Studies on the Presence of Scandinavians in Eastern Europe. Dulinicz, M. Spotkania Bytomskie, III. Wroclaw, Ksztaltowanie sie Slowianszczyzny Polnocno-Zachodniej. Feveile, C. The latest news from Viking Age Ribe: archeological excavations Filipowiak, W.

Studium osadnicze, I. Wolin und Szczecin--Hafen und Topographie der mittelalterlichen Stadt. Copenhagen, Wollin--ein fruhmittelalterliches Zentrum an der Ostsee. Handbuch zur Ausstellung, 1. Stuttgart, Wolin--the trading emporia on the Baltic Sea.

Freise, E. Zur Person des Theophilus und seiner monastischen Umwelt. Kunst und Kunstler der Romanik. Godlowski, K. Okres wedrowek ludow na Pomorzu. Hardh, B. Silver in the Viking Age. A Regional-Economic Study. Hatz, G. Herrmann, J.

Zur Struktur von Handel und Handelsplatzen im sudwestlichen Ostseegebiet vom 8. U zrodel polnocno-slowianskiego wczesnego miasta. Fruhe Seehandelsplatzen am "aussersten Ende des westlichen Ozeans". Geschichtliche Grundlagen, siedlungstopographische Strukturen und ethnische Herkunft ihrer Bewohner.

Hodges, R. Towns and Trade in the Age of Charlemagne. Jagodzinski, M. Das fruhmittelalterliche Hafen- und Handelszentrum im Ostseegebiet bei Elbing. Truso--Siedlung und Hafen im slawisch-estnischen Grenzgebiet.

Jankuhn, H. Ein Handelsplatz der Wikingerzeit. Jorgensen, L. Manor and market at Lake Tisso in the sixth to eleventh centuries: the Danish "productive" site.

Viking age ports of trade in Poland/Viikingiaegsed kaubasadamad Poolas.

Trading and "Productive" Sites, Bollington, Kiersnowski, R. Legenda Winiety. Pieniadz kruszcowy w Polsce wczesnosredniowiecznej.

Kowalska, A. Szczecin: origins and history of the early medieval town. Kowalski, T. Relacja Ibrahima ibn Jakuba z podrozy do krajow slowianskich w przekazie al-Bekriego.

Kuidas kasutada aktsiaturu voimalusi

Monumenta Poloniae historica. Nova series, 1. Leciejewicz, L. Poczatki nadmorskich miast na Pomorzu Zachodnim. Wroclaw; Warszawa; Krakow. Kolberg Kolobrzeg. Sredniowieczne miasto nad Baltykiem. Lewicki, T. Swiat slowianski w oczach pisarzy arabskich.

Lonsinski, W. W sprawie genezy osiedli wczesnomiejskich u Slowian nadbaltyckich. Osadnictwo plemienne w dorzeczu Parsety we wczesnym Sredniowieczu.

Kolobrzeg w Sredniowieczu. Kolobrzeg, Pomorze--bardziej slowianskie czy bardziej "baltyckie"? Krakow, Stettin Szczecin. Trojramienna zapinka skandynawska z cmentarzyska w Swielubiu pod Kolobrzegiem--aspekt chronologiczny. Lublin; Warszawa, Madsen, P. Ribe between West and East--a North Sea harbour and its connections Malowist, M. Problematyki dziejow gospodarczych strefy baltyckiej we wczesnym sredniowieczu.

Muhl, A. Der Bamberger und der Camminer Schrein. Zwei im Mammenstil verzierte Prunkkasten der Wikingerzeit.

Muller-Wille, M. Early urbanization in southern Scandinavia and the western Slavonic area. Paner, H. Rozwoj przestrzenny Gdanska w Swietle badan archeologicznych. Wybrane oSrodki wladzy w Polsce wczesnoSredniowiecznej. Katalog wystawy. Gniezno, Petersen, J. De norske vikingesverd.

En typologisk-kronologisk studie over vikingetidens vaaben. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter, II. Klasse, 1. Piskorski, J. Pomorze plemienne. Poznan; Szczecin. Polanyi, K. Ports of trade in early societies. Trade, markets, and money in the European early Middle Ages. Pomian, I.

Water or land? Preliminary results of an interdisciplinary project of palaeoenvironmental reconstruction at the site of the medieval harbour in Puck N. Gdansk, Rebkowski, M.

Pierwsze lokacje miast w ksiestwie zachodniopomorskim. Przemiany przestrzenne i kulturowe. Schoknecht, U. Ein Fruhgeschichtlicher Handelsplatz an der Peene. Slupecki, L. Slavonic Pagan Sanctuaries. Warszawa, Stepien, W. Archeological nautical excavation in Puck harbour, Gdansk district, Poland. WczesnoSredniowieczny port w Pucku.

По сцене вокруг электрического стула бродила бригада телевизионщиков. Казнь должны были показывать в прямом эфире, однако полицейские, собравшиеся в аудитории, тем не менее ожидали полного зала - правительство хотело, чтобы жители Нового Эдема своими глазами увидели смерть бывшего губернатора.

Overvejelser af kultindholdet i Gudmes bebyggelse. Samhallsstrukturen under jarnaldern. Uppakrastudier, 1. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, series in 8[degrees], 28 Tschan, F. History of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen. Records of Western Civilization.

On the coastal areas as well as in the lower reaches of big rivers, settlements were founded in whose economy traditional agriculture and hunting played a minor role. These new type sites functioned as centres of production, trade, and service for merchants and travellers. Their existence was one of the phenomena that distinguishes ancient times from the Early Middle Ages--Viking Age in the northern Europe.

New York. Tummuscheit, A. Gross Stromkendorf: a market site of the eighth century on the Baltic Sea coast. Wachowski, K. Jomsborg Normannowie wobec Polski w w. Warnke, D. Rostock-Dierkow--ein Wirtschaftszentrum des 8. Jahrhundert an der Unterwarnow.

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Watt, M. Die Goldblechfiguren "guldgubber" aus Sorte Muld, Bornholm. Gottingen, Wazny, T. Dendrochronologia obiektow zabytkowych w Polsce. Badania dendrochronologiczne podgrodzia i osady w Wolinie. Ksiega jubileuszowa Dawn Trading System. Wladyslawa Filipowiaka. Szczecin, Zbierski, A. Z kregu badan problematyki zwiazanej z badaniami kompleksowymi nad poczatkami portu puckiego.

It is essential to explain the chronological terminology used in the text. In the Scandinavian archaeology, the Viking Age is dated from the 8th to the middle of the 11th century. Centuries following it are called early Middle Ages. In this text, I use the term early Middle Ages according to the Central European archaeological tradition.

Currently only Richard Hodges looks at these phenomena in a broad way, analysing sites from the North Sea to the Near East Hodges Beside North Polabia and Pomerania, some researchers also include Great Poland and Silesia in it, because of the hack silver hoards recorded in these areas. At the same time, the hack silver hoards alone cannot be considered as a proof of the functioning of a specific economic model, based on long distance sea trade. So, the question is Ubi mare finis?

I support the ideas of Wladyslaw Lonsinski, who suggested that Dawn Trading System Puhastamine Barnet City Centeri strateegia economic zone covered predominantly coastal areas and that no unifying features existed between different regions around the Baltic.

Each region had its own character Lonsinski b, The emporia in the Balt Lands are discussed by Bogucki in press. The eastern Slavonic early trade centres are described by Duczko These writings also give references to earlier publications on the same subject.

Recent studies are discussed Slupecki The whole problem of Jumne-Winieta is discussed by Ryszard Kiersnowski In his geographical work Kitab bast al-ard fi tuliha wa'l-ard The book of the Earth extent in its longitude and latitudehe used some earlier information. There is also a description of the Scandinavian peninsula, called Yazirat as-Saqlab island or peninsula of the Slavswhich capital is B.

Lewicki Cordulia, made of antler in the Mammen Dawn Trading System around the year was kept in the cathedral treasury together with later objects; it had probably arrived to Kamien Pomorski in the 12th century Muhl In MarchSebastian Brather from the University of Freiburg conducted a geophysical investigation. The current results, together with the analyses of aerial photographs indicate the possibility that there were port basins for ships in Truso, which were in some way similar to these in Ralswiek on the island of Rugen.

Still, their existence and character needs future investigation and analysis. Resumee Meie ajaarvamise esimesel aastatuhandel tekkisid Pohja-Euroopas uut moodi asulad: kasitoo- ja kauplemiskohad. Nende tahistamiseks on eri maade arheoloogiakirjanduses kaibel erinevad terminid, naiteks emporium mitm.

Kasitoo- ja kauplemiskohtade olemasolu on loetud uheks kriteeriumiks, eristamaks rauaaega varakeskajast voi Pohja-Euroopa puhul viikingiajast. Kaubasadamate tekkimine Poola uurija Karl Polanyi on naidanud, et kaubasadamad paiknesid alati kaubateede ristumiskohal, enamasti looduslikult hasti kaitstud kohtades: joesuudmes, fjordi voi merelahe kaldal. Enamasti tahistasid kaubasadmad poliitilisi, kultuurilisi, etnilisi voi ka geograafilisi piire ning asusid n-o eikellegimaal.

Vaga oluline oli kohalike pealike poolt pakutav kaitse. Julgeoleku garanteerimise eest kogusid pealikud makse luksuskaupade, eriti korgekvaliteediliste relvade naol. Eliidi toetus oli vajalik rahu kindlustamiseks ja kaubanduse turvalisuse huvides.

Emporium'idest voi nende vahetust lahedusest on tihti teada religioosseid keskusi. Muistses uhiskonnas olid preestrid huvitatud kaubandusest laekuvast tulust.

Lisaks olid preestrid sageli ka oskuslikud kasitoolised, kellel oli kaubasadamates voimalik oma toodangut muua. Kasitoo kontsentreerumine kaubasadamatesse oli viimaste arengus uks olulisemaid tegureid ja tavaliselt hakati seal usna varsti n-o masstoodangut valja laskma. Enamikus sellistest kohtadest on leitud jalgi sepatoost, sarve- ja merevaigutootlusest, klaasivalmistamisest, kangakudumisest, laevaehitusest ja teistest kasitooharudest. Emporium'ide arengus oli koige tahtsam siiski kaubandus--nii rahvusvaheline kaugkaubandus kui ka kohaliku iseloomuga vahetuskaubandus.

Kaubasadamad olid kokkusaamiskohaks eri maadest parit kaupmeestele, kes kasutasid neid kas otseselt oma kaupade muugiks voi ka laokohana teel kaugematele turgudele. Sellised sadamakohad funktsioneerisid uhtlasi kauplemiskohana, kus muudi nii mujalt toodud kaupa kui ka kohalike kasitooliste toodangut. Umbruskonna elanikud varustasid taolisi kohti soogi-joogi ja muu vajalikuga.

Kaubeldi eeskatt teravilja ja koduloomadega, kuid ilmselt toid kohalikud muugiks ka karusnahku, soola, mett, kasitookaupu ja muid tooteid. Kindlasti kaubeldi ka orjadega. Emporium'id olid turud, kus kohtusid inimesed viikingiaegse maailma eri osadest ning kus eksisteerisid korvuti erinevad majandussusteemid, naiteks autarkiline vahetuskaubandus ja keskaegne monetaarne susteem.

Emporium'ide kui nahtuse tekkimise kohta on esitatud mitu teooriat, kust selguvad moned kaubasadamate tekkeks olulisemad tegurid. Esimesena voiks neist mainida uletootmist uhiskonnas.

Pollumajandusliku tootlikkuse kasv oli seotud eeskatt rukki kasutuselevotuga, samuti kasitoo, eriti musta metallurgia arenguga, mistottu suudeti paremaid tooriistu valmistada.

Kohaliku toodangu ulejaak vahetati importkaupadeks. Sellega kaasnes rahvastiku kasv, samuti etniliste suhete konsolideerumine, mis omakorda tihendas regioonidevahelisi sidemeid. Maaravad olid asustuse organiseerunud struktuuri valjakujunemine ja kaubavahetuseks oluliste tehniliste voimaluste olemasolu. Mooda ei saa vaadata ka uhiskondliku korralduse muutustest, mis viisid tugeva ja jouka eliidi valjakujunemiseni.

Tootlikkuse kasv ja kaubakeskuste tekkimine Pohja-Euroopas on seostatav Euroopa Barbaricum'i-osas antiikaja lopul ja varasel keskajal toimunud kultuuriliste muudatustega. Taiesti omaette ruhma kuuluvad slaavlaste, skandinaavlaste, laanemeresoomlaste ja baltidega seotud kohad Laanemerd umbritsevatel aladel joon 1.

Viikingiajal moodustasid Dawn Trading System alad nn Laanemere majandustsooni. Kaubasadamate ilmumine Laanemere lounakallastele oli uhtlasi seotud Euroopa keskosas toimunud etniliste muudatustega.

Esimesed slaavlased tulid neile aladele 6. Kaesolevas artiklis on kirjeldatud ainult tanapaeva Poola territooriumile jaavaid muistseid kaubasadamaid. Need paiknesid kolmes peamises regioonis--Odra, Parseta ja Visla joe suudmealal.

Emporium'id tanapaeva Poola territooriumil 2. Odra joe suudmeala Suurim ja olulisim emporium Odra joe suudmealal oli Wolin joon 2kirjalikes allikates Jumne. Wolin arenes vaikesest kulast suureks linnaks. Arheoloogilise materjali pohjal sai sealne kaubasadam alguse pohiliselt 8. Sel perioodil oli tegemist mitmest komponendist koosneva asustuskompleksiga, kus olid esindatud nii linnamagi, valliga umbritsetud varalinnaline keskus ja sadam kui ka mitu kalmistut ning paganlik tempel.

Teisena voiks mainida Szczecinit joon 3mida kirjalikes allikates nimetati esmakordselt Selle koha tahtsust markasid ka araabia kirjamehed, kes nimetasid linna Sasiniks v Sadziniks. Asula tekkis seal siiski juba enne Kasitoo toeline oitseng iseloomustab Viikingiaegne Szczecin eksisteeris kahtlemata kaubasadamana, kuid Laanemere Dawn Trading System kaubanduses polnud ta kuigi tahtis.

Koha jouline esilekerkimine jargnevatel sajanditel on ilmselt seotud Wolini allakaiguga. Kamien Pomorski, kolmas kaubasadam Odra joe suudmes, tekkis hiljem kui Wolin ja Szczecin. Sealsed varaseimad leiud voib dateerida Arheoloogilised kaevamised on toestanud, et Kamien Pomorskil oli kaubanduses tahtis osa peamiselt Parseta joe suudmeala Parseta joe suudmeala moodustas teise olulise piirkonna Pomeraanias, kus viikingiajal tekkisid kaubasadamad.

Umbruskonnas on teada mitmeid linnuseid, mille hulgas domineeris Bardy linnamagi koos korval asuva Swielubie kalmistuga. Arheoloogiline materjal osutab, et seal oli spetsialiseerutud monele kasitooharule, millest eelkoige voiks mainida sepatood. Umbruskonna tahtsaim tootmisharu oli siiski soolatootmine kohalikest ressurssidest. Moningad skandinaaviaparased matused Swielubie kalmistul osutavad, et 9.

Pusima jai vaid uks suur linnus--Kolobrzeg-Budzistowo joon 4. See oli linnus koos mitme kindlustatud suburbium'iga, mis asus umbes 25 ha suurusel alal.

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Linnuse varaseimad kihid on dateeritud 8. Linnuse keskel on kaevamiste kaigus avastatud mitme Rohke leiumaterjal viitab sepatoole, luu- ja sarve- ning merevaigutootlemisele.

Piirkonna joukusele pani 9. Aastal rajas piiskop Reinbern Kolobrzegi piiskopkonna. See poliitiline akt on seostatav masstoodangu algusega sealsetes kasitookodades. Lisandunud leiumaterjal alates Visla joe suudmeala Kunagist tahtsaimat kaubasadamat Trusot on Selle asukoht, 15 ha suurune viikingiaegne asulakiht avastati siiski alles Praeguseks pole kahtlust, et tegemist on Wulfstani poolt mainitud Trusoga.

Asula oli tekkinud otse kunagise merelahe kaldale ja ilmselt poolkaarekujulise valliga umbritsetud. Enamik avastatud hoonetest oli ehitatud Skandinaavia traditsiooni kohaselt ja jagatud kolme ossa. Korvalhooned olid sageli liidetud elumajaga, moodustades sel viisil suletud hoovid.

Majad olid eraldatud tanavatega ja paiknesid korraparase plaani kohaselt. Truso asulakohast leiti rohkesti jaanuseid kasitoost, millest olulisim oli ilmselt olnud sepandus. Intensiivselt Dawn Trading System tegeldud merevaigutootlemisega, millest annab tunnistust rohkem kui 10 kg merevaigutukke.

Rohkelt leiti ka kammi- ning klaasitootmise, kangakudumise ja laevaehituse jaanuseid, samuti marke kullassepatookojast.

  1. Эти существа обладали глубокими познаниями, были мудры и умели сочувствовать друг другу.
  2. Viking age ports of trade in Poland/Viikingiaegsed kaubasadamad Poolas. - Free Online Library
  3. On 10 aktsiaoptsiooni
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Truso on dateeritud 8. Voimalik, et uus voim tahtis piirkonnas kogu rahvusvahelist kaubandust kontrollida, havitas Truso ning suunas tahtsamad kaubateed umber Gdanskisse.

Praeguseks vee alla jaanud asulat Pucki Visla joe suudmeala laheduses on samuti sageli defineeritud kui emporium'i, kuid pigem on siiski tegemist kohalikule turule suunatud kaubasadamaga. Keraamika ja [sup. Puckist saadud leiumaterjali iseloom on paraku ebaselge.

Lahe pohjast, tanapaeva rannast m kauguselt, on leitud ulatuslikke sadamakonstruktsioone, mis samast saadud keraamika pohjal on dateeritud viikingiajaga joon 6. Enamik konstruktsioonijaanustest kujutas endast maasse kaevatud jamedaid puuposte ning kividega taidetud palkkaste. Lisaks eelnimetatuile on Puckist leitud hoonejaanuseid ning moned laevavrakid.

Dendrokronoloogia pohjal on koht dateeritud Vrakke on dateeritud pohiliselt 14C analuuside abil ning varaseim neist kuulub 7. Ulejaanud laevavrakid on ehitatud umbes aastatel ja Vaid uks laevadest dateeriti ka dendrokronoloogia abil. See oli ehitatud parast Jaab siiski usna kahtlaseks, kas juba viikingiaegset Pucki voib emporium'iks nimetada, kuna selle lahiumbruses pole avastatud rahvusvahelisele kaubandusele viitavaid leide.

Pucki oitseng langeb perioodi Koha arengus voib eristada kolme pohietappi.

Maailma kaubandussusteemid rahvusvahelises aris

Neist esimene, mis on esindatud ainult kahe laevavrakiga, kajastab hoimuuhiskondliku korralduse valitsemist umbruskonnas.

Teine etapp on langusperiood, mis oli ilmselt tingitud Piasti dunastia poliitilisest mojuvoimust piirkonnas Sellele jargnes kaubasadama taassund The thrill of battle and the will of the people. Build a space station that belongs to you and your companions only: a place that you can call home. This system is now yours. Ready for more kill mails?

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