Liigu sisu juurde

Vaid ühes uudises Liiklusseadus The number of phonemes in English is 35 Roach , thus the maximum number of possible sounds was Critical discourse analysis in transdisciplinary research. Seega liigitub lause Auto sõitis jalakäijale otsa tegevuse, lause Jalakäija jäi auto alla teo ning lause Ülekäigurajal juhtus õnnetus juhtumi alla. Seega kui jalakäijat esitatakse situatsiooni suhtes aktiivses rollis, suureneb nende vastajate osakaal, kes näevad jalakäija süüd suuremana ning autojuhi süüd väiksemana.

Kui tahame käitumist muuta, siis peab olema teates midagi, millest õppida. Hukkunutega õnnetuste korral mobiliseerime end võimalikult kiiresti, et pressiteate vormis edastada iga õnnetuse taga olevat lugu, mis inimesi kõnetab.

Nii jääb kõrvaliseks kõige olulisem asjaolu: autojuhid sõidavad ülekäigurajal jalakäijatele otsa ning inimesi saab surma. Samuti annab see avalikkusele selge sõnumi: ülekäigurajal õnnetusse sattunud jalakäijad on ise süüdi, kui autojuht neid ei näe. Sedasi pannakse ebaproportsionaalselt suur vastutus liikluses nõrgemale poolele. Artikli tulemused on kooskõlas rahvusvaheliste uuringutega, mille kohaselt liiklusõnnetuste diskursuses domineerib autokeskne lähenemine ning autota liiklejad on avalikus ruumis halvemas positsioonis Freund, MartinWhatleySheller, Urry Ka on oluline asjaolu, et liiklusõnnetuse mõiste on liiklusseaduses sõnastatud kui juhtum ajas ja ruumis, mitte tegevus ega tegu.

Seaduses ei nähta vigastust ega surma personaalsena, küll aga juhtumina. Seetõttu lähtub teate edastanud korrapidaja Eesti legaalsest kontekstist. Kuni pole kindlaks tehtud teisiti, on kellegi surm õnnetusjuhtumi tagajärg, mistõttu ei saaks liiklusteadet ka agentselt esitada.

Seega peaks lugejaarvamus viitama asjaolule, et legaalne kontekst suunab kirjutaja kaudu ka lugejat. Nii on tähenduse konstrueerimine keerukam protsess, kui käesolev artikkel suudab kirjeldada.

Eesti Rakenduslingvistika Ühingu aastaraamat 11

Küll tõestas lingvistiline analüüs selgesti, et liiklusteated on kaldu autojuhi õigustamise suunas ja unustavad legaalse konteksti: ülekäigurajale lähenemise loomuliku legaalse käitumismudeli. Eestis on seatud eesmärgiks vähendada jalakäijatega juhtunud liiklus­ õnnetuste arvu Kas senine liikluskommunikatsioon vajaks ümbervaatamist?

Olukorra muutmise võimalusena nähakse kaasata jalakäijaid kultuurilise tähenduse loomise protsessi ja tõsta nende mõjuvõimu ühiskonnas. Selleks peab jalakäijate kogukond senisest oluliselt rohkem kaasa rääkima nii kultuuri, kogukonna kui ka turvalisuse küsimustes Demerath, Levinger Ühiskonnas on oluline luua tasakaalustatud dialoog, et liikluskultuuri kujundamisel arvestataks kõikide huvigruppide, ka jalakäijate, jalgratturite ning teiste gruppide, seisukohadega.

Üheks lahenduseks oleks liikluskasvatust ning liiklusõnnetusi kajastavate teadete selge lahushoidmine. Liiklusteadetele kehtiksid meediaeetika reeglid, mille kohaselt ei tohi sündmuste kajastamisel asuda kellegi poolele, kallutada avalikku arvamust ühes või teises suunas Eetikakoodeks. Kui liiklusteated on edastatud, on alati võimalus pöörata liiklejate tähelepanu turvalisust suurendatavale asjaoludele: helkurile, kiivrile, aga ka õigesti valitud kiirusele, kutsuda liiklejaid üles olema vastastikku tähelepanelikumad, tegema paremat koostööd jne.

Õnnetuste ohvrid on liikluses vähem kaitstud osa: eelkõige lapsed ja vanemad inimesed. Jalakäija ja auto kokkupõrkes ülekäigurajal on esimene nõrgemas positsioonis ning sellest on võimalus liikluskommunikatsioonis lähtuda.

Viidatud kirjandus Abinõude valik jalakäijate ja jalgratturitega toimunud liiklusõnnetuste ning neis kannatanute arvu vähendamiseks: II etapp. Tallinn: Maanteeamet, Demerath, Loren; Levinger, David The social qualities of being on foot: A theoretical analysis of pedestrian activity, community, and culture.

Multidistsiplinaarne käsitlus. Eesti keele grammatika II. Fairclough, Norman Language and Power. London: Longman. Discourse Processes and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press. Discourse and Social Change. Harlow: Longman. Second edition. Critical discourse analysis in transdisciplinary research. Wodak, P. Hilton Eds.

Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 53— Critical discourse analysis. Discourse as Social Interaction. London: Sage, — Flowerdew, John Description and interpretation in critical discourse analysis.

Speaking about accidents: The ideology of auto safety. Harvey, Lee; Macdonald, Morag Doing Sociology: A Practical Introduction.

Macmillan Distribution. Huckin, Thomas Härson, Tuuli Liikluskommunikatsioon: sõnaga surma vastu. Kasik, Reet Meediateksti analüüs: eesmärgid ja metoodika. Tekstid ja taustad V. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 10— Laherand, Marika Kvalitatiivne uurimisviis. Leeuwen, Theo van The representation of social actors. London: Routledge, 32— Liiklusseadus McQuail, Denis McQuaili massikommunikatsiooni teooria.

Oatman-Stanford, Hunter Murder machines: Why cars will kill 30, Americans this year. Pan, Zhondang; Kosicki, Gerald M. Framing analysis: An approach to news discourse. Car manufacturer and global road safety: A word frequency analysis of road safety documents. The city and car.

Pange tähele: 1. Kui teil on vaja, palun öelge meile.

Serafini, Frank Vallières, Lucie Disciplining Pedestrians? MA thesis. Simon Fraser University. Whatley, Marianne H. Widdowson, Henry G. The theory and practice of critical discourse analysis. Disorders of Discourse. London—New York: Longman. Katrin Aava Tallinna Ülikool peamised uurimisvaldkonnad on meediatekstide, haridustekstide kriitiline diskursuseanalüüs.

The linguistic construction of participants in traffic accidents Katrin Aava Tallinn University Reports on traffic accidents carry societal meanings and judgements about the value of human life, role and responsibility of all parties and who is to be blamed.

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Critical discourse analysis used in this research is a method that allows to detect such hidden meanings of societal agreements and interpretations encoded in texts.

To exemplify how the roles of different parties are construed in traffic news, were analysed 26 police reports about traffic accidents that happened on crossroads in October and November To find out how such framing influences readers in interpreting the text, were questioned respondents.

Traffic reports are phrased in such a way that accidents happen, their active participants are cars which hit pedestrians and pedestrians who are hit by cars. The questionnaire revealed that the more emphasis is put on the factors that distracted the driver, the more readers perceive pedestrians as responsible for the accident.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, framing, viewpoint, traffic reports 19 External factors and the interference of L1 Estonian on L2 English pronunciation: An apparent-time study Kristiina Ader, Merilin Miljan Abstract. This study focusses on external factors of second language learning L2 and their effect on L2 sound production.

The aim was to find out whether young adults whose first language L1 is Estonian speak L2 English with less accent than older speakers of L1 Estonian. Prior studies have claimed that more exposure to the target language lessens the effect of L1 interference internal factors e. Piske et al.

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An apparent-time study was implemented in order to test whether a change in learner setting i. Data was elicited from the speech samples of 97 speakers of L1 Estonian and L1 interference effects were analysed sound by sound. The results show that the younger generation displays less L1 Estonian interference than the older generation. Both greater exposure to the target language and earlier age of L2 learning onset correlate with the ability to produce more sounds target-like.

Introduction From very early age on, speakers attune to the phonetic system of their first language L1. FlegePiske et al. The focus of research in L2 phonology has been on pinning down the exact factors which cause such an interference in L2 pronunciation.

We also thank all the informants who took part in the study, and the two anonymous reviewers for their useful comments and suggestions. ScovelPiske et al. Flege, LiuBrown Currently researchers have started to question the strict divide between the internal and external factors, especially Moyerand are discussing the importance of studying both types of factors Jagage valikutehinguid kuni in order to find the intersection of these distinct factors.

This paper provides a contribution to this debate by studying the pronunciaton of native speakers of Estonian in their L2 English in a wider time span. It reports an apparent-time study which surveys two different generations of a population at one point in time with the aim to find out whether and how external factors, such as the quantity and quality of experience in the target language have affected the L2 English phonology of L1 Estonian SIG 556 Share Option Tehingud and how it interplays with the age of L2 learning onset.

These findings have implications for teaching the pronunciation of L2 English to L1 Estonian speakers. Internal and external factors in L2 pronunciation As mentioned above, prior studies have established that children acquire the phonetic system of a foreign language relatively easily compared to adult language learners e.

This hypothesis has generated many studies on internal factors affecting L2 pronunciation.

For example, Granena and Long studied Chinese learners of L2 Spanish starting at the age of 3—6, 7—15, and 16—29 and found that there are sensitive periods in different language domains: the ability to acquire phonology starts to decline before the ability to acquire lexis and collocations, which in turn declines before morphosyntax; the latest ages of onset which yielded a native-like acquisition were 5, 9, and 12, respectively. They found that although both the age of onset of L2 learning and the extent of L1 use play a significant role in gaining the native-like pronunciation, the age of L2 learning onset appeared still to be more influential.

Yet there are studies which question the onset of L2 learning as the major factor. For example, Flege et al. This raises a question whether the late learners are predetermined to be significantly less success­ ful at achieving native-like pronunciation than younger learners.

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That is, speakers tend to produce the sounds of a 22 new phonological system which sound similar to the sounds in their L1 in a similar manner: they may substitute certain L2 sounds with the sounds of their L1. Flege Yet, there are late learners who have SIG 556 Share Option Tehingud to acquire almost native-like pronunciation. As Marinova-Todd et al. One of the studies which has specifically focussed on native-like learners is by Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam They conducted a large-scale study among late and early L2 learners of Swedish L1 Spanish and selected a group of most native-like sounding individuals, as picked by L1 Swedish judges.

Only a small minority of late learners and a majority of early learners were perceived as L1 speakers of Swedish. Upon further examination, it was found that none of the late learners performed native-like once their L2 pronunciation was scrutinised in detail; neither did the majority Naituse seista susteemid early learners. A more recent study by Moyer analyses several previous case studies which feature late learners who have achieved native-like pronunciation.

For this reason, Moyer emphasises the need for an integrated approach to studying learner factors, as no isolated factor is prevalent enough to determine the whole outcome of pronunciation learning. For instance, Muñoz and Llanes studied two groups of CatalanSpanish bilingual children and adults with respective mean ages This observation is often referred to as Single System hypothesis e.

Flege et al. From a pedagogical perspective, the issue of foreign accent is constantly under discussion. One solution suggested in the literature is the intelligibility principle e.

SLI Morfonotaktika leedu keele omandamisel esimese keelena: tüüpilise arenguga vs. Riigikeele oskuse vajalikkusest vene koolinoorte pilgu läbi Why do I need Estonian?

LevisDerwing, Munroaccording to which a foreign accent is acceptable, but only tolerated to the extent that it does not affect the intelligibility of speech. As long as there is a mutual understanding, it is unnecessary to demand a native-speaker-like accent from both the learner and teacher. The learning of L2 23 pronunciation should thus focus on aspects which cause untelligibility e.

A related question is which variety of English should be considered for teaching: British English or American English or some other. This is a possible cause of confusion among teachers and students alike, as pointed out by, e. LevisHamid and Baldauf It is noted that the concept essentially refers to an abstract entity, an ideal, while in reality native speakers can be affected by their L2 or regional varieties.

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To overcome the issue, some scholars e. Prior studies on L1 Estonian interference How Estonian as L1 affects the pronunciation of L2 English has received little attention thus far. Among the few studies is McAllister et al. The study found that the group of L1 Estonian speakers was the second most successful in achieving a native-like production and perception1 of quantity, since the quantity distinction is phonologically relevant in Estonian, but not in English or Spanish.

Mutt focusses on describing the characteristics of Estonian accent in L2 English in his textbook, but there is no mention of how the data was elicited. She examined annual tests of first year English majors at the University of Tartu and, as a result, wrote instructions for L1 Estonian learners how to improve pronunciation in L2 English.

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Kalk observed students in elementary and primary schools and her findings confirmed the observations made by Mutt and Kostabi Kalk SIG 556 Share Option Tehingud inquired teachers of English about the pronunciation training in classroom and found that not enough time is spent on it. In sum, all previous studies on how Estonian interferes with the pronunciation of L2 English are qualitative and focus on providing detailed descriptions of L1 Estonian sounds in a sound system of L2 English.

Thus this study is the first attempt to provide empirical and quantitative data about the effect of L1 Estonian on L2 English phonetic system. In addition, we test two hypotheses. Hypothesis 1 states that younger adults speak L2 English with less accent than elderly L1 Estonian speakers.

The assumption is that since younger generation has studied English in a different cultural situation than older informants, they have been more exposed to the target language from early age on; hence, according to Piske et al. Juhul, kui teil puuduvad ja ei saa kiirenemist objekti juures sinu asukohta, aega, postkontor, võib helistada teile meeldetuletus Enamasti posti vedaja saab panna ainult teade. S : Me hoiame kõrge turvalisus ja konfidentsiaalsus oma klientide töötajad informatsiooni.

EMS Express saab jälgida ja oma kohalikus postkontoris. Paki Registreerida Postitus saab jälgida oma kohalikus postkontoris. Nii on vaja teie allkirja vastu. Kui teil on vaja jälgida mitu, siis palun saatke e-mail või jäta teade meile omandamiseks.

Te võtke meiega ühendust kõigepealt, kui teil on vaja eespool nimetatud teenust. Kui kaup valduses on ostja leida tolli, ostja kandma riski.

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Kui juhtub impordimaksude või muud tasu või muu oht, kuna me saata kauba Hiinast, ostja vastutab selge, kohandatud või maksta kohandatud maksu, need riskid on tingitud ostja custom, mis on väljaspool meie kontrolli. Palun mõista. Kui teises riigis on erinevad leida tollipoliitika, et las klient kauba kätte ohutult ja sujuvalt, meil on lõplik otsus valida, mis kullerposti teenuse, kui laev.

Tagastamise Poliitika 1. Kui te ei ole rahul toote mingil põhjusel, võite meiega ühendust võtta 3 päeva jooksul pärast taotluse saamist punkt; 2 punkt peaks olema samas seisundis, nagu see oli teile saadetud, täieliku toetuse väljastatakse 3 päeva jooksul pärast saame punkt, mitte lisada laevandus ja käitlemise tasu.